WHAT'S IN A NAME?
First father Domenico BERNASOCCHI is recorded by Dr Joseph Gentilli (see 'Life Before Australia' below) as arriving in Australia in 1859 ... but Gentilli records no ship's name. Gentilli records Domenico's name as "Dom. Riccardo Bernasocchi" and records his birth year as 1836.
However, Gentilli records Pietro BERNASOCCHI (who he notes as Domenico's brother), Giacomo BERNASOCCHI and Giuseppi BERNASOCCHI as also arriving in 1859 ... aboard the 'Black Eagle'. Their names appear as "Pietro", "Gioc" and "Gius" "Bernasochi" on the passenger list of the 'Black Eagle'.
Domenico's 1874 death registration records that he had been "13 years in Victoria" so it may be that Domenico followed Pietro, Giacomo and Giuseppi a couple of years after their migration.
There is documentary evidence to say that Domenico and Pietro were not brothers, although Gentilli does note that they were (as does Dr Annamaria Davine - see 'Life Before Australia' below). The official Colony of Victoria registration of each man's marriage (signed by each) records a father of the same name, but the names of the mothers are different. Domenico's mother's maiden name is recorded as "Maria VALMAGUNE" (confirmed on the marriage certificate - see below) and Pietro's mother's maiden name is recorded as "Tarasa MINOLI", likely misspelling 'Teresa'.
In "Letters of Naturalization" dated 3rd October, 1864, Domenico - identified as "Domenico Bernasochi of Daylesford in the Colony of Victoria, Miner" - was granted "all the rights and capacities within the said Colony of Victoria of a natural born British subject" by Governor Charles H. Darling, thus becoming entitled to purchase land. Prerequisite to this, John Burton JP certified on 26th September, 1864, that he had known Domenico for two years and that Domenico was "a person of good repute." Domenico duly swore his oath of allegiance on 1st November, 1864.
Domenico and Bridget were married on 10th February, 1866 in the newly completed St Peter's Roman Catholic Church at Daylesford, its first service having been conducted less than a year earlier, on 14th May, 1865. The marriage certificate held at St Peter's records that
Domenico was admitted to membership of the "Loyal Hand of Friendship Lodge Daylesford" on 4th October, 1870. The Honour Board of the Lodge, held at the Daylesford Museum, shows Domenico as "Richard Bernasoca".
(Note regarding Domenico's names:- It appears that, with the birth of his first child in 1867, Domenico came to be known as 'Richard Bernasoco' or 'Bernasoca'. With the exception of the registration of daughter Clara's 1874 birth - on which he is recorded as "Dominick Bernasoca" - each one of the official Colony of Victoria registrations of the births of Domenico's children and the death of one of them records "Richard Bernasoco" as father.)
The Baptismal Register at St Peter's, Daylesford records the following births and baptisms of the children of Domenico and Bridget:-
The family's residence is given as Coomoora throughout this time. Domenico is identified as "Richard" (three times), "Domenico" (once) and "Dominic" (once). The family name is recorded variously on a 'Bernasoco/a' theme, with 'a' and 'o' occasionally finding a place earlier in the spelling.
On 15th August, 1871, Domenico (as "D. Bernasoco") bought a nine-acre block of Crown land abutting Jim Crow Creek near the road from Hepburn to Franklinford.
With four children under seven years of age ... a fifth, James Patrick, had died in 1872 ... Domenico ("Dominick Bernasoco" on the death Register) died of "Disease of the Heart" on 19th November, 1874, recorded to be thirty-five years old. (Baby Clara was just five weeks old. Sadly ... when one imagines Bridget's emotions ... within four months of her father's death, Clara, too, had died.) Domenico's cousins, Gaetano and Battista Minotti, were witnesses to his 20th November burial at Daylesford Cemetery, officiated by Reverend Henry Bradbee. Matters had proceeded quickly and, indeed, included an Inquest conducted by District Deputy Coroner James Izett and a jury of twelve "good and lawful men of Coomoora (Glenlyonshire)" on the very day of the death.
Bridget's official Deposition to the Inquest (endorsed by "her mark") serves to slow the process for a reflective, modern reader. It evokes considerable sentiment and is quoted here verbatim:-
"I am the wife of the deceased Dominic Barnasoco now lying dead, upon whose body this inquest is being held. He was thirty five years of age. The day before yesterday when he came from his work at the claim where he was engaged as a miner he laid down on the bed and complained of pain in his Kidneys, and in his head, he had not complained of anything for years previously. He had apparently never been in better health. Yesterday he said he felt better and went to work again; he never went to a Doctor, as he thought he was all right again. When he came home yesterday from work, about five oclock in the evening, he milked the cows. We had tea together about six; he enjoyed a good tea. After tea, he went into the garden and rolled away some logs. After which he went down to Mr Haddin's, a neighbour, to attend a sick cow. He returned about seven, and went to bed about eight o'clock; he was then apparently perfectly well; he never looked as well or was as merry for many years. I sat up sewing, until halfpast ten oclock, I then went into the bedroom, and he was then lying on his right side asleep. I went in very gently being anxious not to wake him. I went to bed and lay at the foot of the bed as I had a sore breast and on account of the baby. The baby woke me twice during the night. About six oclock this morning the baby woke me again the third time. When I saw him I thought that there was something the matter with him. I spoke to him but he was dead. I called to him but it was useless. I then sent for Mr Haddin who gave information to the police. My husband was a very sober man, I never saw him tipsy in my life. We have been married about nine years."
Scientifically, on the other hand, "duly qualified Medical practitioner" George Roche deposed "... On opening the body I found the pericardium distended with blood, and there was a recent rupture of an aneurism of the Aorta. The lungs were healthy. There were no other indications of disease. Death must have taken place instantaneously upon the rupture taking place. ..."
Altogether, this was a sudden and distressing end to the life of an enterprising and healthy young husband and father.
Maps produced by the Department of Lands & Survey, Melbourne show that Bridget (as "B. Bernasochio") purchased three quarters of an acre of Crown land in Coomoora on 7th December, 1875. Interestingly, more than a decade later, on 6th March, 1888, her daughter Catherine (as "C.T.J. Bernasochi") purchased a two-acre block of Crown land abutting Bridget's. Catherine was just seventeen years old. (Note: 'T', for 'Theresa', has been added to her name by 1888. Indeed, she is named as "Catherina Theresa Josephina", aged three and a half years, on her father's 1874 death registration. On later official documents, viz. her 1896 marriage and 1962 death registrations, 'Josephine' has been dropped and her given names appear as 'Catherine Theresa'.) No more is known about these property matters but it would appear that the land, which today is in open paddocks south-west of the intersection of Wallaby Creek and the main road to Glenlyon, was all or part of Domenico's original miner's right. Certainly, the blocks are at the south-western extremity of the originally surveyed subdivisional "Residence Sites at Comoora", photo-lithographed 3/12/1866.
Bridget Mary BERNASOCCHI (nee BOYLE) may not be a 'first mother'. It is possible that she emigrated with her parents during the 1850s. This is being investigated currently. Following Domenico's death, Bridget Mary married Glenlyon labourer Patrick LEE at St Peter's, Daylesford, in 1876. She and Patrick had two children, William Patrick and Eliza Bridget. Sponsors at the baptism of William Patrick were John Boyle and Catherine Boyle. These are the second and third references to 'Boyle' at the baptisms of Bridget's children, thus suggesting that she did have family in Australia, including, maybe, her parents.
When Bridget died on 25th February, 1925 she was living with her daughter, Catherine, and son-in-law, Henry OLVER, in Stewart Street, Hawthorn, Victoria. (Domenico's name is spelt "Domnico Bernasocchi" on Bridget's death certificate.)
Catherine's brother, Richard, also came to live with her towards the end of his life. William Henry SMITH, the son of Catherine's daughter Cecelia (aka Florence) remembered Bridget faintly and, more clearly, "Uncle Dick" when each of them lived at Stewart Street. He recalled an aged lady living in an earthen-floored sleep-out in the backyard. At the time, toddler William Henry, known all his life as 'Harry', lived at Stewart Street with his mother and grandparents before they later moved around the corner to Victoria Road. Richard died at Camberwell in 1930, aged sixty-three. His death registration spells his surname with the original "Bernasocchi", as it also does when recording his father's name.
Richard BERNASOCCHI appears to have been an active member of the Daylesford community in the decades surrounding the turn of the century. Records at the Daylesford Museum show that he was a member of a Lodge (with Henry OLVER), the fire brigade, a brass band and the cricket team. Further details are being sought currently.
Another of Catherine's siblings, Mary Anne Frances BERNASOCCHI, married William TODD in Port Melbourne at the age of twenty-seven. She and William had two children - Margaret and Francis Richard. Frances, as she was known, died on 24th May, 1953 aged eighty-three, at her home in Warwick Road, Greensborough. Widowed at the time of her death, Frances had been unwell for some time, suffering senility (four years), gangrene of the right leg (four months) and pneumonia (four days). She was buried in the Brighton Cemetery on 26th May. Frances' death registration shows her father as "Richard Bernasocki" and her mother as "Bridget Mary Bernasocki".
Catherine and Henry OLVER's daughter, Cecelia Jane, married twice, first to Reginald Tresise SMITH and then to John Rowling CUGLEY. She had no children by her second marriage. At some time before her first marriage she became known as Florence Cecily. Her son from her first marriage, William Henry (Harry) SMITH, also married twice, first to Phyllis Joyce O'HARA and then to Margaret WATSON (nee BENNETT). He and Margaret bore no children. His and Phyllis Joyce's daughter, Helen Cristine (that's not a typo - there is no 'h'!) SMITH, married a SMITH!! - Martyn Geoffrey. An exceptional touch of no change of name!
The story of Domenico BERNASOCCHI and his fellow Ticinesi is told in 'The Settlement of Swiss Ticino Immigrants in Australia' by Dr Joseph Gentilli. This is an Occasional Paper of the Department of Geography, University of Western Australia, published in the Department's publication GEOWEST 23, August, 1988.
Additional works that provide informative descriptions of Ticinese life before Australia, comprehensive accounts of life in Australia and extensive bibliographies, are:
1. Carlson, Bridget Rachel, Immigrant Placemaking in Colonial Australia: The Italian-speaking Settlers of Daylesford, Department of Social and Cultural Studies, Victoria University, Melbourne, 1997. This is an unpublished doctoral thesis that can be found on the worldwide web.
2. Davine, Annamaria, "Neither Here Nor There" Italians and Swiss-Italians on the Walhalla Goldfields 1865-1915, Italian Australian Institute at La Trobe University, Melbourne, 2009. This is a published doctoral thesis. The Abstract and Table of Contents of the original thesis can be found on the worldwide web, also.
Last updated by Martyn SMITH on 14 February, 2019.